Which best describes how air moves during convection?

"Convection" has several, related meanings in weather….but it always involves rising air. It usually refers to "moist convection", where the excess water vapor in rising air parcels condenses to form a cloud.

The heat released through this condensation can help to sustain the convection by warming the air further and making it rise still higher, which causes more water vapor to condense, so the process feeds on itself.

But convection can also be dry, as occurs on a sunny day over the desert, or in more humid regions early in the day before the convection has become strong enough to form clouds. The sun warms the ground, and convective air currents help to remove the excess heat from the surface. Dry convection also occurs during the day even when clouds are not forming…you just can't see it.
MAKING THE EARTH LIVEABLE: Convection (both dry and moist) help to make the Earth liveable by removing excess heat from the surface, which is where most of the solar energy is abrobed by the Earth, and transporting it high into the atmosphere. It has been calculated that, without convection, the average surface air temperature on the earth would be about 125 deg. F, rather than the current 59 deg. F.
WHAT GOES UP, MUST COME DOWN: All of the air rising through convection must be balanced by an equal amount of sinking air elsewhere. This, clouds represent vertical circulation systems, involving rising air where the visible cloud forms, and sinking air around the cloud.
MAKING THE EARTH LIVEABLE: Convection (both dry and moist) help to make the Earth liveable by removing excess heat from the surface, which is where most of the solar energy is abrobed by the Earth, and transporting it high into the atmosphere. It has been calculated that, without convection, the average surface air temperature on the earth would be about 125 deg. F, rather than the current 59 deg. F.
WHAT GOES UP, MUST COME DOWN: All of the air rising through convection must be balanced by an equal amount of sinking air elsewhere. This, clouds represent vertical circulation systems, involving rising air where the visible cloud forms, and sinking air around the cloud.
MAKING THE EARTH LIVEABLE: Convection (both dry and moist) help to make the Earth liveable by removing excess heat from the surface, which is where most of the solar energy is abrobed by the Earth, and transporting it high into the atmosphere. It has been calculated that, without convection, the average surface air temperature on the earth would be about 125 deg. F, rather than the current 59 deg. F.
WHAT GOES UP, MUST COME DOWN: All of the air rising through convection must be balanced by an equal amount of sinking air elsewhere. This, clouds represent vertical circulation systems, involving rising air where the visible cloud forms, and sinking air around the cloud.
MAKING THE EARTH LIVEABLE: Convection (both dry and moist) help to make the Earth liveable by removing excess heat from the surface, which is where most of the solar energy is abrobed by the Earth, and transporting it high into the atmosphere. It has been calculated that, without convection, the average surface air temperature on the earth would be about 125 deg. F, rather than the current 59 deg. F.
WHAT GOES UP, MUST COME DOWN: All of the air rising through convection must be balanced by an equal amount of sinking air elsewhere. This, clouds represent vertical circulation systems, involving rising air where the visible cloud forms, and sinking air around the cloud.

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(1) Gravity (2) (a) and (b) (3) True (4)Sea-breeze in coasal stations is an example of local winds.During day time land area is heated more than the adjacent sea surface.The air above the heated surface is also heated and rises as convection current.This rising air is replaced by cold air from the sea surface which constitues the sea-breeze.The air circulation is completed by a reverse flow of wind from the land to sea at higher levels. Hadley cell is an example of global wind.Hot air rises as convection current at the equator and travels north and south.When it reaches latitude 30 degrees north and south,known as horse latitudes,it sinks,creating high-pressure areas.Some of this air travels back towards equator,and these flows are known trade winds.This constitutes a global air circulation called Hadley cell.

Cool, dense air falls through warmer, less dense air. Warm air is displaced by cooler, denser air.

When air – or any gas or liquid, called a "fluid" – is heated, the warmer parts will rise and cooler parts will sink, because when something (gas or liquid) is warmed, it expands, thus weighs less than the colder material.

If you set a container of warm (or hot) gas or liquid into cold water, a circulation will start, with the fluid on the outside moving downward and the fluid in the middle moving up through the center. This can be easily demonstrated using a glass container filled with hot water and small floating particles so that movement can be seen. Set it in cold water and watch the particles go up the center and down the sides. The opposite happens when you apply heat to the bottom of the container.

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